Having a father at home is a sign of affluence, but it is also a cause of affluence, especially for boys.
Boys who grow up with a father at home earn much more as adults.
Boys who grow up alone with their mothers tend to earn less.
They also have more disciplinary problems in school. They read less, and less well.
They are also less likely to graduate high school or go to college. They are more likely to be unemployed and to live in poverty.